Astronomia Vedica Part III    



All events are connected by Time, all places are connected by Space and all effects are connected by Cause in the Space-Time-Causality equation. The Science of Time ( Astrology ) and the Science of Cause ( Transcendental Philosophy ) assume great significance in the realm of superconscient learning 


Kala Nirnayah, Computation of Time 
The Elements Used in the Computation of Time 

The main element used is the Sun itself. One solar day is the time taken by the earth to rotate around its own axis. One solar day is made up of 24 solar hours, one solar hour is sixty minutes and one minute is sixty seconds.

The time taken by Soorya, Sol to make a circuit of the Zodiac from the First Point of the Sidereal Zodiac is called a Samvatsara, Sidereal Year. This is 365.25363 solar days. A Tropical Year is the time taken by the Sun to make a circuit of the Tropical Zodiac This is 365.242194 solar days.

The Five Types of Years


Anuvatsaram, Parivalsaram, Indha Vatsaram eva cha
Samvatsaram Vatsarascha Vaidooryeva Prabhashase


These are the  five types of years
1)    Solar Year, Saura Varsha
2)    Jupiterian Year, Barhaspatya
3)    Savana Year, Vatsara 
4)    Lunar Year, Inda Valsara
5)    Sideral Year, Nakshatra Varsha



Samvatsara, Solar Year 


The time taken by Sol ( Sun ) to cross one degree is called a solar day. When the Sun crosses from one Sign to another, this is called Surya Sankrama ( transit to another sign ). The time taken from one Surya Sankrama to another is called one solar month. The motion of the Sun is fastest at the first week of January and is slowest at the first week of July. In other words, since the Sun's motion is fastest in the Vedic months of Sagittarius and Capricorn, it takes only 29 days for the Sun to traverse 30 degrees of Sag and Cap. Conversely, it takes 32 days for Sol to traverse 30 degrees of Cancer, since his motion is slowest at Apogee, in the Vedic month of Cancer.
 Barhaspathya, Jupiterian Year
One Barhaspathya is time taken by Jove ( Jupiter ) to traverse 30 degrees of a sign. The duration is 361 days and a Jupiterian Cycle is roughly 12 years.
Vatsara or Solar Year, Savana Year
One Savana day is reckoned from Sunrise to Sunrise. 30 such Savana day is called one Savana month. 360 such days is one Savana year.
 Inda Vatsara, Lunar Year 
A lunar month is the time calculated from one New Moon to the next New Moon. Since during a solar year, 12 Full Moon were visible , the Zodiac was divided into 12 constellations. 12 Lunar months constitute one Lunar Year. This is 354.367 days. This is 11 days less than the solar year.
Nakshatra Vatsara , Sidereal Year
One sidereal day is time taken by Luna to traverse a constellation of 13 degrees and 20 minutes. The Moon takes 27.3 days to revolve around the earth. 27.3*12 is one Sidereal Year and it is 327.6 days.
Savana Dina, pparent Solar Day 

The time taken by the earth to rotate around its own axis. From a geocentric perspective, the Sun moves one degree per day.

 Nakshatra Dina, Sidereal Day
This is the time taken by the earth to rotate around its own axis with regard to Sidereus, the constellation of fixed stars. This is 23 hours and 56 mins and 4.0953 seconds.
Bhaga, Kala & Vikala, Degree, Minute & Second 
The divisions of the 360 degree Circle , which is the Zodiac, which is the Ecliptic.
Nadis, Vinadis, Tatparas


An apparent Solar Day is 24 hours. According to Indian Astronomy, a solar day is 60 Nadis. 60 Vinadis is one Nadi ( Nazhika ) and 60 Tatparas is one Vinadi. There are minuter subdivisions like Pratatparas ( 60 Pratatparas constitute one Tatpara ), corresponding to micro seconds and nano seconds in Western time calculations. 2 and a half Nadis is one hour or 24 minutes is one Nadi.
While as per Western calculations, a day is reckoned from midnight to midnight, an Indian day is reckoned from sunrise to sunrise and a Hijra day is calculated from sunset to sunset.
Nirayana Samvatsara, Sidereal Solar Year
The time taken by the Sun ( from a geocentric perspective ), to make a circuit of the Sidereal Zodiac . This is 365 days, 6 hours 9 minutes and 9.8 seconds.
Sayana Samvatsara, Tropical Solar Year
This is the time taken by the Sun to make a circuit of the Tropical Zodiac. This is 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 45.2 seconds. This is 20 minutes and 24.6 seconds less. This is because the First Point of Aries moves 50.3 seconds per year.
Bhagana Poorthi Kala, Sidereal Period of the Moon
The time taken by Luna to make a circuit of the Sidereal Zodiac. This is 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes 11.5 seconds.
Thidhi Kala, Synodic Period
SP is the the time between 2 successive conjunctions. For the Moon, it is the time taken from New Moon to New Moon.
Samvatsara, Solar Month & the Laws of Planetary Motion 
SM is the time taken by the Sun to traverse one Sign. The motion of the Sun is fastest at Perigee ( near the earth ) and slowest at Apogee ( away from the Earth). ( This is the Earth-in-reflex, as it is the earth which is moving and not the Sun ) . In other words, the motion of the earth is fastest at Perihelion and slowest at Aphelion. During the sidereal months of Sagittarius and Capricorn, the Sun is nearest to the earth. It takes only 29 days to traverse 30 degrees of a sign. During the months of Gemini and Cancer, the Sun is away from the earth and it takes 31.477 days for the Sun to traverse 30 degrees of a sign. The slowest motion of the Sun is 57 minutes and 11 seconds. The fastest motion of the Sun is 61 minutes 10 seconds. That is why some Sagittarius and Capricorn ( Vedic months ) have 29 days and Cancer and Gemini ( Vedic months )  have 32 days, as per the Vedic Calender. The orbit of a planet is always elliptical, with the Sun as the focus of the ellipse. ( Suryaha Jagata Chakshu ). The orbital period of a planet ( Bhagana Kala ) bears relationship to the Madhyama Manda Karna ( Semi-major axis ) of the planet.  ( O P = MMK^1.5 ). ( These principles, discovered by Aryabhata, Bhaskara & Brahmagupta earlier were rediscovered in the West by Kepler as the Laws of Planetary Motion. )  


Kali Era & Kali Day
The beginning of the Kali Era was 3102 BC, February 18 on a Friday. Then the First Tropical & Sidereal  Points were in 0 degrees Beta Arieties ( Aswini ). All planets were in the same point at that time. If you add 3102 to the English era, you get the Kali Era. Ahargana is the elapsed Kali day number, the days elapsed from the start of the Kali Era. If you divide Ahargana by 7 and find the modulus, you can know the day of the week. If the remainder is one, it is Saturday, if it is two, it is Sunday and so on.

                           Day of the Week = Ahargana%7 ( % is the modulus operator in Foxpro ).

Njattu Velas, Solar Periods 


The constellation tenanted by the Sun is called Njattu Velu. In a day, the Sun traverses less than one degree ( less 59.13 seconds ).  Sol takes 13,14 days to traverse 13 degrees 20 minutes and so the duration of a Njattu Vela is 13, 14 days.
Njattu Velas are important from the perspective of Agriculture. Karthika Njattu Vela is the time when the Sun transits the constellation of Karthika & Thiruvathira Njattu Vela is the time when the Sun transits the constellation of Aridra ( Thiruvathira ). Aridra, Karthika, Chothi and Chitra Njattuvelas give plenty of rains and farmers use this time productively.